He turned the former provincial city of Ghazni into the rich capital of an extensive empire which included modern-day Afghanistan , most of Iran , and parts of north-west India including modern-day Pakistan. He was also the first ruler to carry the title Sultan , signifying his break from the power of the Islamic Caliph. He was the eldest son of Emir Subuktigin. When he was young, Mahmud helped his father gain land through military campaigns against Turk nobles.
Mahmud Ghazni's Invasions of India
Ottoman Empire - Osman and Orhan | Britannica
Somnath temple! The first among the 12 jyotirling shrines of Lord Shiv. Located in Prabhaskshetra near Veraval in Saurashtra region on the western coast of Gujarat. Prabhaskshetra is the place where Krishn and Balaram went on a task related to offering of gurudakshina to their Guru Sandipani. A four hours journey from here and you shall reach the ancient kingdom of Dwarka, established by Krishn.
Raja Samgramaraja! Not everyone are familiar with this king from Kashmir, who ruled from to CE. He was the founder of the Lohara dynasty. Mahmud of Ghazni plundered and looted many kingdoms in India besides razing hundreds of temples to the ground, beheading lakhs of Hindus, taking women as sex slaves, and converting many to Islam.
In the name of Islam, he conquered the eastern Iranian lands and the northwestern Indian subcontinent from to his death in Mahmud turned the former provincial city of Ghazna into the wealthy capital of an extensive empire which covered most of today's Afghanistan, eastern Iran, Pakistan and northwestern India. He was the first ruler to carry the title Sultan "authority" , signifying the extent of his power, though preserving the ideological link to the suzerainty of the Caliph.